Amelia, Olivia and Holly have been learning about the amount of plastic in the ocean and wanted to take action. They brought in a book from home called "Captain Green and the Plastic Scene" and asked if they could share it at assembly. They read the book and then talked about products people could use that do not contain plastic and showed some examples of artwork that could be made from recycled materials.
Maria: Prosthetic limbs are artificial arms or legs attached to the body after someone loses an arm or leg.
The first record of a prosthetic limb is the story of a Persian soldier in 484 B.C. who lost his foot when trying to escape from his enemies, and then made himself a wooden foot.
The oldest surviving prosthetic limb was a copper and wood leg found in Italy. It was about 2,300 years ago. It was kept in a museum in England until it was destroyed in World War II.
Most prosthetics in the past were made for soldiers who lost their limbs in battle.
This is an old prosthetic arm made from metal from the 1500's.
Prosthetic limbs in the olden days were usually made from wood or metal and attached to the body with leather straps. For many centuries people used peg legs made of wood and hooks for arms. But these types of prosthetics did not move like regular hands and legs.
Now prosthetics have become much more advanced. For example, runner athletes without legs can use cheetah blades, which are artificial legs shaped like sleighs. They are made of carbon fibre which is very strong but also light. It also acts like a spring which is needed to make running easier. Runners using cheetah blades can run just like you and me.
Now we will watch the first video.
Maria: Prosthetic arms are also getting much better. Scientists have even invented ways to connect the prosthetic to the brain so that the person can control it with their brain. In this way the prosthetic arm can behave the same way as yours and mine.
I also found this interesting video of a boy who made a prosthetic arm out of Lego.
Maria: My research was interesting because I learnt something new. I had never seen the cheetah blades before and I thought it was cool that even if you have a disability you can still play sports and move like everyone else.
Ms Leah: I also saw a video on Facebook this morning about prosthetics. Would you like to see it?
Charlie brought in a caterpillar and a caterpillar in a chrysalis. This week a butterfly emerged from the chrysalis!
Yuuki: Before in my grandparents' lifetime, they used an abacus to do Math. You would do 5 and then plus 4 equals 9.
And in my mom's life they used a calculator to do Math. Like 7 plus 5. You can see how much it is.
ow we can use an iPad or phone. A screen. We can use this like Siri now.
Siri, what is 9 plus 9? Siri will tell you.
What time is it, Siri? Here is the clock.
Amelia: Good morning, everyone. Today I would like to talk to you about how the music has changed.
The first music was a record player.
Now we will watch a video.
Amelia: First we had those record players and then we had CD's. These are the CD/s. We don't play it from this side. We play it from this side.
The music starts from here and it goes to the outside.
Records started on the other side and went from the outside.
And now we have phones and computers. CD's you had to go to a store and same with records, but a phone you can just go to an app.
If you have one of those big record players, you can't bring it with you, but a phone you can.
And this is an iPod.
Ben: The music has also changed.
Maria: Now there are lots of different types or genres.
Olivia: And it became faster and louder.
Maria: I think I've heard of Thomas Edison before.
Ben: I have too.
Ray: In Ancient Times, there was no way to communicate with people far away. There were so many reasons:
1. People didn't know how to read or write.
2. Paper and pen/pencils were not invented yet.
3. Someone can write on bamboo, wood or silk. But they were too heavy or too expensive for daily use.
Some of the old countries developed a postal system.
China 200 BC (Xia Dynasty)
Persia 100 BC
Roman Empire (1st Country)
However, the postal companies in these countries were only used for government and military mail.
In 19th Century, most countries built postal systems. Including:
Mail Delivering Services
Package Processing Services
This picture shows a Railway Postal Office Car in the USA
In 19th Century, the telegram was invented.
At the beginning, the telegram could only be sent by wired cables. So people built thousands of mail cables in the world.
This map shows the main telegram cables around the world.
In 1895, the wireless telegram was invented.
Wireless telegrams were used widely since then. Wireless telegrams can be sent to another country far away from a telegram station or even a ship.
Most ships are equipped with telegram devices since then.
This is a telegram device produced by Siemens.
In the early 20th century, the telephone was invented.
This image shows an early telephone. It has to be connected by an operator. You pick up the earphone/microphone , tell the operator who you want to speak to. The operator will connect the line to the receiver.
This image shows a telephone with a dial (0 to 9). The dial panel was used until 1990's.
This is a modern telephone with a screen and buttons. It is based on the digital telephone network system, and can provide much more services (voice mailbox, caller list, etc).
The first mobile phone was in 1984. It was very, very expensive! You needed 5,000 to buy one. It could only send/receive voice. No texts (SMS). No Internet.
In a short period of 30 years, mobile telecom has advanced to be able to:
It's very cheap to buy the phone, from the rapid development of microchip industry;
Send/receive texts, voices, videos, from the 4th generation of Mobile Networks (4G)
Everyday we can use mobile phones more and more to communicate with other people, even on the other side of the world.
Ben: The first electronic television system was designed by Philo Farnsworth. Did you know that he was only 21.
President Franklin Roosevelt was the first American president to appear on TV.
The RCA company began selling TV’s and making TV programs.
In the beginning there was only black and white television.
In 1964 there were colour programs.
TV’s have gotten larger, lighter and now we can even connect your computer to an ATV.
Some people say by the year 2021 there will be 1.68 billion Tv’s in the world.
This is the newest TV. I think this one is the 1900’s.
And this is the old remote. Only four buttons. And that’s the new one.
Okay, we can pass them around if you want. Make a circle please. Just give it to anyone you want.
Maria: This one looks sort or like a microwave.
Ben: I hope you remember what you saw, because now I’m going to ask you some questions.
The old remote only had change of channel, change of channel higher, lower, off and on and volume control.
Now the hard part. I’m going to ask you a few questions about the differences you saw. Any one have a difference? Did you notice something between the old remote and the new one.
Maria: There was only four buttons on the old remote. And the new one has more buttons.
Ben: Wow, it’s got a lot of buttons. Wait, I will count. It has 45 buttons.
Ms Leah: What are some of the buttons for?
Ben: Some of the buttons on the new remote are play, pause, numbers, off/on, volume, channels, two volumes one higher and one lower. Okay? And a lot others. Because it’s newer.
Ray: Because the technology has been changed.
Ben: Because more things have been invented.
Maria: More channels.
Ben: There is a play button, so you can pause it if you want to go to the bathroom or something.
This is I think the 1970’s.
Okay, this is very old. I think this was maybe the 1950’s. You had to get up and change the channel.
Okay, this one is the oldest. Did you notice something similar or different about the pictures? What are some of the differences between the TV’s?
Olivia: There is a speaker?
Ben: Well, there is a speaker on all of them, but there are some differences.
Okay, so who wants another look at one picture or two?
Ben: So yours is the oldest. This is the newest.
Olivia: Some TV’s we cannot use a remote.
Ben: Use a knob to turn the channel.
Yuuki: Maria’s TV doesn’t have knobs.
Ben: There you actually had to press these buttons.
Ray: The old TV has the speaker here. This one has a knob and this one doesn’t.
Ben: What’s the difference between that one an that one?
Kou: This one is a triangle. And this one is a little bit circle.
Ben: Yes, sort of round.
Maria: The old one is heavier than the new one.
Hyuga: Here there is no speaker. Here there is a speaker.
Ben: The speaker for this one is in the back.
Kou: Newest one need the remote control. But the old TV’s you could press the button.
Yuuki: This TV has buttons at the bottom. And this one has only one.
Kou: The brand is different.
Ben: The thickness is way different. That one is very thin. It’s much lighter.
Maria: It can be put on the wall.
Ben: Any questions.
Yuuki: This TV has a thin stand here and this one doesn’t.
To inquire into how the world has changed in our parents' lifetimes and grandparents' lifetimes we decided to interview them. Today we came up with our interview questions.
We are a class of Grade 1 students at an international school in Singapore hoping to share our learning with you.